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By: Or Shalom, HLS expert
The innovation in the HLS sector and border security is the catalyst for new solutions for existent needs and threats. It contributes to the added value, the ability to fully cover all security bases in response to threats, the efficiency of processes and the significant contribution to the level of security. The analytics, in combination with AI, contribute to the optimization as well as the creative and flexible means to implement applications, which drastically improves the functionality of the security systems by being capable of understanding and using intelligence and learning under the veil of Machine Learning.
When examining innovation trends in the airport sector it is advised to stick to the term “Smart Security” (a term coined by the ACI in 2019) which helps to efficiently bring security resources into focus and direct them against threats and suspects. This way innovation is directed towards active background security procedures while minimizing friction, disturbances and damage caused to people coming and going in the airport. In airport security there are many challenges such as the movement of passerby, the need for fast checkup procedures, readiness for fast transition into emergency as well as the ability to quickly return to routine operations.
The Main Trends Derived from Smart Security Regarding R&D and Innovation for Airport Indoor Security Solutions:
Implementation and Smart Applications in Analytics – the technologies of analytics implementation allow for a smart algorithmic examination of the information (for example, a photo or a recording). In this example it can be used to analyze security footage via human behavior analysis and the ability to predict internal threats as well as external threats (such as shootings). Implementing such abilities indoors can aid in engaging security operatives, isolation of areas and further proceedings. Implementing smart analytics can provide appropriate responses to the internal threat arena as a sensitive area in the airport. Examination of historical events raises events of illegal exploitation of access points or passage of illegal weapon smuggling and more by internal personnel. In 2016, an explosion occurred on a plane taking off from the Mogadishu Airport, capital of Somalia. During the investigation following the event security footage of the event were uncovered in which an employee can be seem transferring the booby-trapped computed to the terrorist in an internal area (after the checkup procedures and prior to boarding the plane). Utilizing analytics of attribution and handover of belonging would have provided a warning and given a preventative response before the boarding of the plane.
The ability to combine both AI and ML capabilities allows for an improvement in level of performance in regard to detection of weapons even without the need to strip a person or open his luggage. The challenge is to detect weapons and detonators which are often disassembled in different angles in an attempt to trick the standard systems. The systems which integrate AI capabilities allow for the implementation of these abilities and for the detection of weapons and discarded explosives.
An additional premise of correct usage of analytics can show itself in the ability to convert existent information from photos and audio to text, which is then kept in an appropriate archive. This implementation utilizes the information in security footage and converts it via the OCR to text for safekeeping, as well as retrieval and reproduction of the information from the archives. While using this method the system will know how to translate the information from photographs yielded from security footage of a certain car and detail all information about it, including fields such as color, license plate, type of vehicle and time of incident. Currently, queries regarding the type, color and license plate of a vehicle will be even more useful, as well as the time for information retrieval and watch time will be decreased to only a few minutes (when the alternative of watching a video back might take a very long time).
Technological Flexibility Opposite to Outline of Threats and Different Requirements in Airport Indoor Systems – caused by the need for different responses in the airport. For example: terrorist threats as opposed to non-terrorist threats. This need directly impacts the possible functional planning of systems. Thus, a camera stationed in a certain area will be able to provide three times the coverage in regard to the following: fuller coverage of terrorism and terror activity via utilization of analytics to identify intent to shoot, detection of criminal activity and the intent to smuggle or trespass, even the ability to collect health measurements from the airport passerby. The Corona epidemic constituted a trigger and influenced the camera market and the methods in which you can implement analytics.
Classification Technologies and Preventing Access to Restricted Areas in Airports – in airports there are quite a few teams, employees and different service providers. The nature of the location requires attention and management capabilities for restricting the different areas in an airport. The ability to enforce limitations based on classification levels and preventing access is characterized mostly by a double identification process in combination with a capability or component from the family of “something you need”, “something you have” or “something you are”. The considerations of implementing access prevention technologies in airports are the delicate balance between the demand to act and maximum security. Implementing a double process is measured against the number of available employees regarding performance time. Today, there are technologies that allow for double identification via a single component that combines “something you have” with “something you are”. For example, such technologies allow for fingerprint scans as a method to check both the relevant ticket and receive a biometric sample in one swift move.
Technologies For Improvement of Identification from Afar (As Part of The Safe Distance Array) And Fully Autonomous Security Checkups – the Corona epidemic caused many changes and shifts that impacted the process of identification from afar as well. It has created the need for biometric checkups with no physical touch required. This need accelerated the development and utilization of designated solutions of smart touchless kiosks, as well as a few pilots in international airports. Focusing efforts in these areas must be deployed for protecting the systems themselves by preventing access to them and protecting themselves in the cyber realm to prevent any possible manipulations in regard to security checkups.
Information Analysis and Synergy Between Systems for A Unified Information Archive
Many systems are used throughout airports, some autonomous, which allows for security redundancy and safekeeping of separate circles, and some interconnected between systems. The ability to create synergy for a united Big Data system by importing all information to one system adds to the creation of a Big Data archive which allows for quarrying, retrieval, cross checking of data due to the massive amount of information produced from the different systems. If we look again at the event that occurred in the Mogadishu Airport it is apparent that analyzing the movement axis of the terrorists beginning from their arrival at the airport showcased in security footage and cross examining the pictures with the internal interaction could have highlighted the anomalous situation of a passenger arriving without a carry on for a computer and receiving one inside the airport. Existing information that is stored in different airport systems in combination with OSINT can produce valuable information for security decision making or required action. Beyond the possible legal implication, there are technological limitations too such as a method to import and export information between different autonomous systems without connecting them to one computer network that is exposed to the cyber realm, as well as allowing for redundancy at the time of a malfunction of a different system (via transferring data between system one-way – for example, using a diode).
Or Shalom – Security and cyber expert and consultant to government ministries and defense industries, international business development consultant for companies in the fields of HLS and cyber and leads centers of excellence and advanced training programs in Cyber and HLS for various organizations in the civilian, security, industry, and academic sectors. He holds a master’s degree, as well as civil and national qualifications in the realm of HLS and Cyber Security. He has experience in security, innovation, planning, and characterization of technological security systems, HLS, and Cyber preparedness.
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